The hallucal interphalangeal ossicle: anatomy and basis for ultrasound-guided surgical shaving Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-08805-w Web of Science: 000771589000049

Cited authors

  • Moroni S, Marquez J, Fernandez-Gibello A, Nieves GC, Montes R, Vazquez T, Sanudo JR, Moriggl B, Stecco C, Tubbs RS, Konschake M


  • Painful lesions on the plantar aspect of the first interphalangeal joint (IPJ) of the hallux can be attributed to structures called ossicles, nodules, or sesamoids. The aims of the present study were first to verify that ultrasonography (US) is a high-sensitivity tool for diagnosing an interphalangeal ossicle (IO), and second to prove that US-guided-shaving surgery ("milling") is a safe and feasible technique for remodeling the IO. The study is divided into three parts. In the first part, the prevalence of IOs was estimated in 12 cadaver feet using US, anatomical dissection, and fluoroscopy. In the second, a detailed US and morphological description of the IO was obtained. In the third, six cadaver feet were subjected to surgical milling. IO prevalence was 41.6% in gross anatomy, 41.6% in US examination and just 16.6% in fluoroscopy. The ossicles had a mean length of 4 mm (+/- 2 mm) and a width of 7 mm (+/- 2 mm). The ossicles could be completely shaved in all specimens without injuring important anatomical structures. Our results indicate that US is a more precise tool for diagnosing an IO than X-ray. Moreover, our US-guided mini-invasive surgical technique appears feasible and safe.

Publication date

  • 2022

Published in


International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2045-2322

Number of pages

  • 8


  • 12


  • 1