- Kattar N, Migneron M, Debakey MS, Haidari M, Pou AM, McCoul ED
- IMPORTANCE Emerging computed tomographic (CT) imaging techniques for the localization of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may be superior to the current imaging standard, thus necessitating a critical review and pooling of available evidence.OBJECTIVE Primary hyperparathyroidism requires accurate imaging to guide definitive surgical management. Advanced techniques including 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT) scan have been investigated over the past decade. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of these emerging imaging techniques through pooled analysis of the existing evidence.DATA SOURCES PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were queried for original English articles without any restrictions on date.STUDY SELECTION We included comparative observational studies but excluded animal studies, case reports, and case series. Overall, 353 abstracts were screened independently by 2 investigators along with a third reviewer to resolve conflicts. A total of 26 full-text articles were included in this review.DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS This review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Data was independently extracted by 2 investigators and subsequently pooled into a meta-analysis using a random-effects model.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Measures of imaging diagnostic performance such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were the primary outcomes of interest.RESULTS Overall, of 34 articles screened, 26 met criteria for qualitative synthesis, and 23 of these were appropriate for meta-analysis. Of the 26 studies included, there were 5845 patients, of which 4176 were women (79.2%). The average of mean ages reported in 23 studies was 60.9 years. Meta-analysis in all patients with PHPT revealed pooled sensitivity that was greater with 4D-CT (81%; 95% CI, 77%-84%; I-2 = 88%) compared with the current first-line modality of sestamibi-single-photon emission CT (SPECT/CT) (65%; 95% CI, 59%-70%; I-2 = 93%). For patients with recurrent PHPT requiring reoperation, 4D-CT pooled sensitivity was 81%(95% CI, 64%-98%; I-2 = 93%) in contrast to 53%(95% CI, 35%-71%; I-2 = 81%) for sestamibi-SPECT/CT. The overall quality of the 26 studies was moderate with a median (range) Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies score for all included studies of 15.5 (13-19).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings of this systematic review and with meta-analyses of numerous studies from the past decade suggest that the 4D-CT can be more sensitive and specific than sestamibi-SPECT/CT in localizing PHPT. More research is needed to determine the clinical significance of this improvement in localization.
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