Variations and Classification of Bony Septations of the Jugular Foramen: An Anatomic and Histologic Study With Application to Imaging and Surgery of the Skull Base Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.04.010 Web of Science: 000836590400017

Cited authors

  • Fang Y, Olewnik L, Iwanaga J, Loukas M, Dumont AS, Tubbs RS


  • INTRODUCTION: Approaches to the jugular foramen can be challenging. Adding to this difficulty is the potential for a bony septation to occur in the foramen thus subdividing its contents. Although such bony septations in the jugular foramen are known, the anatomic details of these structures have not been studied well. Therefore, the present anatomic study was performed.METHODS: One hundred adult human skulls (200 sides) underwent evaluation for the presence or absence of a bony septation within the jugular foramen. The source, morphology, and size were all documented. A classification scheme was developed to better describe the varied types of morphology of the jugular foramen bony septa. Select bony septations were submitted to histologic analysis using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome.RESULTS: Bony bridges were found on 8.5% of sides. These were bilateral in 3% of skulls. Eight (47%) were incomplete (type I). Nine sides (53%) were found to have completely articulated bony bridges (type II) and these had articulation between the bony processes as either touching (type IIa), joint-like (type IIb), or completely fused (type IIc) morphologies. Multiple septa were observed on 2.5% of sides and these were classified as type III septa. Histologically, both incomplete and complete septa were found to be composed of normal bone tissue.CONCLUSIONS: Our study found significant variations regarding the bony septa of the jugular foramen. Knowledge of this anatomy can be useful for preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation with approaches to the skull base that target pathology of the jugular foramen.

Publication date

  • 2022

Published in

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1878-8750

Number of pages

  • 7

Start page

  • E464

End page

  • E470


  • 163