Risk Factors for Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Multinational Case-Control Study Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciac608 Web of Science: 000842248200001

Cited authors

  • Mejia-Chew C, Carver PL, Rutjanawech S, Camargo LFA, Fernandes R, Belga S, Daniels SA, Muller NJ, Burkhard S, Theodoropoulos NM, Postma DF, van Duijn PJ, Farinas MC, Gonzalez-Rico C, Hand J, Lowe A, Bodro M, Vanino E, Cruz AF, Ramos A, Makek MJ, Mjahed RB, Manuel O, Kamar N, Calvo-Cano A, Carrasco LR, Munoz P, Rodriguez S, Perez-Recio S, Sabe N, Alvarez RR, Silva JT, Mularoni A, Vidal E, Alonso-Titos J, del Rosal T, Classen AY, Goss CW, Agarwal M, Lopez-Medrano F


  • Background Risk factors for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections after solid organ transplant (SOT) are not well characterized. Here we aimed to describe these factors. Methods Retrospective, multinational, 1:2 matched case-control study that included SOT recipients >= 12 years old diagnosed with NTM infection from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2018. Controls were matched on transplanted organ, NTM treatment center, and post-transplant survival greater than or equal to the time to NTM diagnosis. Logistic regression on matched pairs was used to assess associations between risk factors and NTM infections. Results Analyses included 85 cases and 169 controls (59% male, 88% White, median age at time of SOT of 54 years [interquartile range {IQR} 40-62]). NTM infection occurred in kidney (42%), lung (35%), heart and liver (11% each), and pancreas transplant recipients (1%). Median time from transplant to infection was 21.6 months (IQR 5.3-55.2). Most underlying comorbidities were evenly distributed between groups; however, cases were older at the time of NTM diagnosis, more frequently on systemic corticosteroids and had a lower lymphocyte count (all P < .05). In the multivariable model, older age at transplant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.04; 95 confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.07), hospital admission within 90 days (aOR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.41-6.98), receipt of antifungals (aOR, 5.35; 95% CI, 1.7-16.91), and lymphocyte-specific antibodies (aOR, 7.73; 95% CI, 1.07-56.14), were associated with NTM infection. Conclusions Risk of NTM infection in SOT recipients was associated with older age at SOT, prior hospital admission, receipt of antifungals or lymphocyte-specific antibodies. NTM infection should be considered in SOT patients with these risk factors.In this multinational, 1:2 matched case-control study of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, older age at transplantation; and hospital admission, receipt of antifungals or lymphocyte-specific antibodies within 90 days of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease were associated with increased odds of disease in the multivariable model.

Publication date

  • 2022

Published in

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1058-4838

Number of pages

  • 9