Mullerian adenosarcoma: clinicopathologic and molecular characterization highlighting recurrent BAP1 loss and distinctive features of high-grade tumors Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1038/s41379-022-01160-1 Web of Science: 000857689100001

Cited authors

  • Boroujeni AM, Kertowidjojo E, Wu XY, Soslow RA, Chiang S, Da Silva EM, Weigelt B, Chui MH


  • Mullerian adenosarcoma is an uncommon mesenchymal tumor of the gynecologic tract. Most cases are low-grade, while high-grade adenosarcomas are rare and not well studied. Herein, we characterize the clinicopathologic and molecular features of 27 adenosarcomas of gynecologic origin, enriched for high-grade tumors subjected to targeted panel sequencing. Sarcomatous overgrowth was more frequently seen in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors (12/17, 71%, vs 1/10, 10%, p = 0.004) and heterologous elements were exclusive to high-grade cases (n = 7, p = 0.03). All deaths were from high-grade disease (advanced primary, n = 2, or recurrence, n = 5). Genetic alterations specific to high-grade adenosarcomas have known associations with chromosome instability, including TP53 mutations (n = 4) and amplifications of MDM2 (n = 2) and CCNE1 (n = 2). Somatic ATRX frameshift mutations were found in 2 patients with high-grade recurrences following a primary low-grade adenosarcoma and ATRX deletion in 1 high-grade adenosarcoma with an adjacent low-grade component. The fraction of genome altered by copy number alterations was significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade adenosarcomas (P = 0.001). Other recurrent genetic alterations across the entire cohort included BAP1 homozygous deletions (n = 4), DICER1 mutations (n = 4), ARID1A mutations (n = 3), TERT promoter mutations (n = 2) and amplification (n = 1), as well as alterations involving members of the PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. One tumor harbored an ESR1-NCOA3 fusion and another had an MLH1 homozygous deletion. Immunohistochemical analysis for BAP1 revealed loss of nuclear expression in 6/24 (25%) cases, including all four tumors with BAP1 deletions. Notably, out of 196 mesenchymal neoplasms of gynecologic origin, BAP1 homozygous deletion was only found in adenosarcomas (P = 0.0003). This study demonstrates that high-grade adenosarcomas are heterogeneous at the molecular level and are characterized by genomic instability and TP53 mutations; ATRX loss may be involved in high-grade transformation of low-grade adenosarcoma; and BAP1 inactivation appears to be a specific pathogenic driver in a subset of adenosarcomas.


Publication date

  • 2022

Published in

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0893-3952

Number of pages

  • 11