Efficacy and Safety of RBX2660 in PUNCH CD3, a Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with a Bayesian Primary Analysis for the Prevention of Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection
Khanna S, Assi M, Lee C, Yoho D, Louie T, Knapple W, Aguilar H, Garcia-Diaz J, Wang GP, Berry SM, Marion J, Su X, Braun T, Bancke L, Feuerstadt P
Background Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, associated with dysbiosis of gut microbiota, has substantial disease burden in the USA. RBX2660 is a live biotherapeutic product consisting of a broad consortium of microbes prepared from human stool that is under investigation for the reduction of recurrent C. difficile infection.Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, with a Bayesian primary analysis integrating data from a previous phase IIb study, was conducted. Adults who had one or more C. difficile infection recurrences with a positive stool assay for C. difficile and who were previously treated with standard-of-care antibiotics were randomly assigned 2: 1 to receive a subsequent blinded, single-dose enema of RBX2660 or placebo. The primary endpoint was treatment success, defined as the absence of C. difficile infection diarrhea within 8 weeks of study treatment.Results Of the 320 patients screened, 289 were randomly assigned and 267 received blinded treatment (n = 180, RBX2660; n = 87, placebo). Original model estimates of treatment success were 70.4% versus 58.1% with RBX2660 and placebo, respectively. However, after aligning the data to improve the exchangeability and interpretability of the Bayesian analysis, the model-estimated treatment success rate was 70.6% with RBX2660 versus 57.5% with placebo, with an estimated treatment effect of 13.1% and a posterior probability of superiority of 0.991. More than 90% of the participants who achieved treatment success at 8 weeks had sustained response through 6 months in both the RBX2660 and the placebo groups. Overall, RBX2660 was well tolerated, with manageable adverse events. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was higher in RBX2660 recipients compared with placebo and was mostly driven by a higher incidence of mild gastrointestinal events.Conclusions RBX2660 is a safe and effective treatment to reduce recurrent C. difficile infection following standard-of-care antibiotics with a sustained response through 6 months.