Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death globally, and further efforts are being under-taken to understand and modify CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidemia (DLD), hypertension, and diabetes. The sedentary lifestyle of most individuals today contributes to the prevalence of these conditions. Uncontrolled dys-lipidemia serves as a fertile ground for atherosclerotic plaque formation, while lipoproteins (Lp) act as cofactors for inflammatory processes that cause plaque destabilization leading to subsequent CVD events. As such, many health experts and institutions continue to emphasize the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength (MusS) with the intent to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins and proprotein convertase subtil-isin kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) expression. Concordantly, the two modes of exercise training (ET), such as aerobic ET (aET) and resistance ET (rET) have both demonstrated to improve CRF and MusS, respectively. Although both modes of ET were shown to independently reduce mortality, participation in both forms resulted in a more pronounced improvement in cholesterol levels and CVD-related mortality. Though reduction of adiposity is nota pre-requisite to achieve better control of DLD through increased CRF and MusS, the beneficial effects of physical activity on the inflammatory processes linked to atherosclerosis are almost always associated with a si-multaneous decrease in overall adiposity. It is therefore essential to promote both aET and rET, including weight loss in order to attenuate the risks stemming from atherosclerosis and its proinflammatory components.(c) 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.