- Wang YC, Chen B, Ciaccio EJ, Jneid H, Virani SS, Lavie CJ, Lebovits J, Green PHR, Krittanawong C
- Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine in genetically predisposed individuals. Previous studies have investigated the potential link between CD and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to provide an updated review of the literature on the association between CD and CVD. PubMed was searched from inception to January 2023 using keywords including CD, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis. We summarized the results of the studies, including meta-analyses and original investigations, and presented them according to the different forms of CVD. Meta-analyses published in 2015 provided mixed results regarding the relationship between CD and CVD. However, subsequent original investigations have shed new light on this association. Recent studies indicate that individuals with CD are at a higher risk of developing overall CVD, including an increased risk of myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation. However, the link between CD and stroke is less established. Further research is needed to determine the link between CD and other cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular arrhythmia. Moreover, the relationship between CD and cardiomyopathy or heart failure, as well as myopericarditis, remains ambiguous. CD patients have a lower prevalence of traditional cardiac risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Therefore, it is important to discover strategies to identify patients at risk and reduce the risk of CVD in CD populations. Lastly, it is unclear whether adherence to a gluten-free diet can diminish or increase the risk of CVD among individuals with CD, necessitating further research in this area. To fully comprehend the correlation between CD and CVD and to determine the optimal prevention strategies for CVD in individuals with CD, additional research is necessary.
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