Imaging of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000001058 Web of Science: 001042188600003

Cited authors

  • Stewart M, Elagizi A, Gilliland YE


  • Purpose of reviewThe current article reviews obstructive forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and associated morphologic cardiac abnormalities. It focuses on echocardiographic imaging of the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction, its evaluation, prognostication, and differentiation from other conditions mimicking obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.Recent findingsSymptomatic patients with LV outflow tract (LVOT) gradients at least 50 mmHg on maximally tolerated medical therapy are candidates for advanced therapies. Resting echocardiography may only identify 30% of patients with obstructive physiology. Provocative maneuvers are essential for symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Exercise echocardiography is recommended if they fail to provoke a gradient. Although dynamic LV tract obstruction is seen with obstructive HCM, it is not specific to this condition and exists in other physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Careful clinical evaluation and imaging techniques aid in the differentiation of HCM from these conditions.Imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and risk stratification of HCM patients. Newer imaging technologies, including 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 3D transesophageal, speckle-derived 2D strain, and cardiac MRI, allow for a better hemodynamic understanding of systolic anterior motion and LV tract obstruction. Evolving techniques, that is, artificial intelligence, will undoubtedly further increase diagnostic capabilities. Newer medical therapies are available with the hope that this will lead to better patient management.

Publication date

  • 2023

Published in

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0268-4705

Number of pages

  • 10

Start page

  • 405

End page

  • 414


  • 38


  • 5