The role and application of current pharmacological management in patients with advanced heart failure Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1007/s10741-024-10383-0 Web of Science: 001150762900001

Cited authors

  • Palazzuoli A, Ruocco G, Del Buono MG, Pavoncelli S, Delcuratolo E, Abbate A, Lavie CJ


  • In the last decades, several classifications and definitions have been proposed for advanced heart failure (ADVHF) patients, including clinical, functional, hemodynamic, imaging, and electrocardiographic features. Despite different inclusion criteria, ADVHF is characterized by some common items, such as drug intolerance, low arterial pressure, multiple organ dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, and diuretic use dependency. Additional features include fatigue, hypotension, hyponatremia, and unintentional weight loss associated with a specific laboratory profile reflecting systemic multiorgan dysfunction. Notably, studies evaluating guideline-directed medical therapy recently endorsed by guidelines in stable HF, including the 4 drug classes all together (i.e., betablocker, mineral corticoid antagonist, renin angiotensin inhibitors/neprilysin inhibitors, and sodium glucose transporter inhibitors), remain scarcely analyzed in ADVHF and New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class IV. Additionally, due to the common conditions associated with advanced stages, the balance between drug tolerance and potential benefits of the contemporary use of all agents is questioned. Therefore, less hard endpoints, such as exercise tolerance, quality of life (QoL) and self-competency, are not clearly demonstrated. Specific analyses evaluating outcome and rehospitalization of each drug provided conflicting results and are often limited to subjects with stable conditions and less advanced NYHA class. Current European Society of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ESC/AHA) Guidelines do not indicate the type of treatment, dosage, and administration modalities, and they do not suggest specific indications for ADVHF patients. Due to these concerns, there is an impelling need to understand what drugs may be used as the first line, what management leads to the better outcome, and what is the best treatment algorithm in this setting. In this paper, we summarize the most common pitfalls and limitations for the use of the traditional agents, and we propose a personalized approach aiming at preserve drug tolerance and maintaining adverse event protection and satisfactory QoL.

Publication date

  • 2024

Published in

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1382-4147

Number of pages

  • 14