Laukkanen, Jari A.; Kunutsor, Setor K.; Ozemek, Cemal; Makikallio, Timo; Lee, Duck-Chul; Wisloff, Ulrik; Lavie, Carl J.
A large body of evidence demonstrates positive, graded effects of PA on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality with increasing intensity compared with lower PA intensity. Running is often designated as a high intensity PA with substantial evidence supporting its health benefits. Cross-country skiing is among the most demanding aerobic endurance exercises and requires engaging the upper- and lower-body. Cross-country skiing is often regarded as high-intensity PA, which has been associated with significant health benefits. However, a robust body of evidence identifying the dose-response relation between cross-country skiing volume and health outcomes is sparse. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the available evidence linking cross-country skiing with CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality; postulated pathways that may elucidate the relation between these associations; outline areas of ongoing uncertainty; and the implications for primary and secondary CVD prevention. To put the findings into perspective, we also summarized the evidence linking running with CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality. Though a head-to-head comparison is not available, the evidence indicates that performing PA as cross-country skiing associates with lower mortality risk when compared with that observed in those undertaking their PA as running. Potential adverse effects of extreme high weekly doses of cross-country skiing over decades may be cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation. Evidence suggests that cross-country skiing may reduce the risk of CVD events and all-cause mortality via anti-inflammatory pathways, improvements in endothelial function and reduced levels of CVD risk factors, such as lipids, glucose, and blood pressure; and enhancement of cardiorespiratory fitness. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.