Ochoa, Juan B.; Cardenas, Diana; Goiburu, Maria E.; Bermudez, Charles; Carrasco, Fernando; Correia, M. Isabel T. D.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reached worldwide, and until a vaccine is found, it will continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 ranges from that of being asymptomatic to developing a fatal illness characterized by multiple organ involvement. Approximately 20% of the patients will require hospitalization; one-quarter of hospitalized patients will develop severe COVID-19 requiring admission to the intensive care unit, most frequently, with acute respiratory failure. An ongoing effort is being made to identify the patients that will develop severe COVID-19. Overall, patients present with 3 different phenotypes of nutrition risk: (1) the frail older patient, (2) the patient with severe ongoing chronic illness, and (3) the patient with severe and morbid obesity. These 3 phenotypes represent different nutrition risks and diverse nutrition interventions. This article explores the different potential approaches to nutrition intervention in patients with COVID-19, evaluating, in this process, the challenges faced in the implementation of guidelines written by different societies.