Carbone, Salvatore; Kirkman, Danielle L.; Garten, Ryan S.; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.
This review discusses the associations of muscular strength (MusS) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD-related death, and all-cause mortality, as well as CVD risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. We then briefly review the role of resistance exercise training in modulating CVD risk factors and incident CVD.; The role of MusS has been investigated over the years, as it relates to the risk to develop CVD and CVD risk factors. Reduced MusS, also known as dynapenia, has been associated with increased risk for CVD, CVD-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Moreover, reduced MusS is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. The majority of the studies investigating the role of MusS with cardiometabolic risk, however, are observational studies, not allowing to ultimately determine association versus causation. Importantly, MusS is also essential for the identification of nutritional status and body composition abnormalities, such as frailty and sarcopenia, which are major risk factors for CVD.