Mitra, Anupam; Ghosh, Raktim Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Kalra, Ankur; Lavie, Carl J.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most prevalent hereditary cardiac disease characterized by the presence of left ventricular and/or septal hypertrophy in the absence of other underlying cardiac disorders. Patients of HCM have a broad range of clinical presentation from being asymptomatic to severely ill condition requires hospitalization and urgent management. Broadly, HCM is classified in two variants: obstructive and nonobstructive. The mainstay of diagnosis is through echocardiography. As HCM chiefly affect the left heart, pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an expected complication of this disease. Though the existence of PH in HCM is known for a long time, its clinical significance, underlying mechanism, and prognostic impact in HCM have been revealed by few recent studies. Specifically, studies have shown increased events of thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure in patients with HCM and PH. These studies elucidated the underlying mechanism of PH in HCM-a rise of pressure in the precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary vasculature. In addition to left ventricular involvement, studies have shown right ventricular involvement and the association of left and right ventricular dysfunction in these patients. Further, it has been shown that surgical intervention to reduce septal thickness improves survival in pharmacotherapy nonresponders and the presence of PH does not increase mortality in these patients. We present a comprehensive review exploring the prevalence, underlying mechanisms, and impact of PH on HCM.