Harper, Lorie M.; Jauk, Victoria; Longo, Sherri; Biggio, Joseph R.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Tita, Alan T.
BACKGROUND: Although in 2013 the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended early screening for gestational diabetes in obese women, no studies demonstrate an improvement in perinatal outcomes with this strategy.; OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether early screening for gestational diabetes improves perinatal outcomes in obese women.; MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing early gestational diabetes screening (14-20 weeks) to routine screening (24-28 weeks) in obese women (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) at 2 tertiary care centers in the United States. Screening was performed using a 50-g, 1-hour glucose challenge test followed by a 100-g, 3-hour glucose tolerance test if the initial screen was >= 135 mg/dL. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed using Carpenter-Coustan criteria. Women not diagnosed at 14 to 20 weeks were rescreened at 24 to 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were pre-existing diabetes, major medical illness, bariatric surgery, and prior cesarean delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of macrosomia (>4000 g), primary cesarean delivery, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and neonatal hypoglycemia (assessed within 48 hours of birth).; RESULTS: A total of 962 women were randomized, and outcomes were available for 922. Of these 922 women, 459 (49.8%) were assigned to early screen and 463 (50.2%) to routine screen. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. In the early screening group, 69 (15.0%; 95% confidence interval, 11.9-18.6%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes: 29 (6.3%; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-8.9%) at <20 weeks and 40 (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.3-11.7%) at >24 weeks. Of those randomized to routine screening, 56 (12.1%; 95% confidence interval, 9.3-15.4%) had gestational diabetes. Early screening did not reduce the incidence of the primary outcome (56.9% in the early screen versus 50.8% in the routine screen, P = .07; relative risk, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.26).; CONCLUSION: Early screening for gestational diabetes in obese women did not reduce the composite perinatal outcome.