Starting independent surgical practice after years of training is a steep learning curve. Part of that curve is learning how to effectively teach residents and encourage their development. While residents want the chance to struggle in a case, the staff surgeon wants the case to go as smoothly and expeditiously as possible. Teaching residents can be improved with in-depth joint case preparation, intraoperative assessment and feedback regarding the resident's skill and judgment, and graduated autonomy. Over time, trusting relationships can be developed that foster residents' independence. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.