A Review of the History, Anatomy, and Development of the C1 Spinal Nerve Article

Full Text via DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.024 PMID: 31838236 Web of Science: 000517784600161
International Collaboration

Cited authors

  • Gutierrez, Santiago; Huynh, Trong; Iwanaga, Joe; Dumont, Aaron S.; Bui, C. J.; Tubbs, R. Shane


  • The C1 spinal nerve is a fascinating anatomic structure owing to its wide range of variations. Throughout history, understanding of the cranial and spinal nerves has probably influenced the current conception of this nerve among anatomists. Located at the craniocervical junction, the C1 spinal nerve contributes to the motor innervation of deep cervical muscles through the cervical (anterior) and Cruveilhier's (posterior) plexuses. Sensory functions of this nerve are more enigmatic; despite investigations into its dorsal rootlets, a dorsal root ganglion, and the relationships between this nerve and adjacent cranial and spinal nerves, there is still no consensus regarding its true anatomy. In this article, we review the available literature and discuss some of the developmental models that could potentially explain the wide range of variations and functions of the C1 nerve.


Publication date

  • 2020

Published in

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1878-8750


  • 135