Peterson, Jess F.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Huang, Li; Finn, Laura E.; Shi, Min; Hoppman, Nicole L.; Greipp, Patricia T.; Baughn, Linda B.
The detection of recurrent genetic abnormalities in B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is critical for risk stratification and therapy-related decisions. Near-haploidy (24-30 chromosomes), a subgroup of hypodiploidy (<46 chromosomes), and BCR/ABL1 gene fusions are both recurrent genetic abnormalities in B-ALL and are considered adverse prognostic findings, although outcomes in BCR/ABL1-positive patients have improved with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. While near-haploid clones are primarily observed in children and rarely harbor structural abnormalities, BCR/ABL1-positive B-ALL is primarily observed in adults. Importantly, recurrent genetic abnormalities are considered mutually exclusive and rarely exist within the same neoplastic clone. We report only the second case to our knowledge of a near-haploid clone that harbors a BCR/ABL1 fusion in an adult with newly diagnosed B-ALL. Conventional chromosome studies revealed a near-haploid clone (27 chromosomes) along with a der(22)t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2) in 17 of 20 metaphases analyzed. Our B-ALL fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel confirmed the BCR/ABL1 fusion and monosomies consistent with chromosome studies in approximately 95% of interphase nuclei. Moreover, no evidence of a "doubled" near-haploid clone was observed by chromosome or FISH studies. This highly unusual case illustrates that while rare, recurrent genetic abnormalities in B-ALL can exist within the same neoplastic clone.