O'Keefe, James H.; Nassif, Michael E.; Magwire, Melissa L.; O'Keefe, Evan L.; Lavie, Carl J.
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a growing public health threat that is evolving into a global pandemic with debilitating, expensive and often lethal complications. Even when hemoglobin A1 c (HbA1C) levels are well controlled, and concomitant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are effectively treated, two out of every three patients with T2D are destined to die from CV complications.; Several large randomized controlled trials (RCT) indicate that two classes of glucose-lowering medications, oral sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) and injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), confer significant CV benefits, including reductions in: hospitalizations for heart failure (HF), progression of diabetic kidney disease, atherosclerotic CV events, and (with some agents) CV death. These CV benefits appear to be independent of the glucose-lowering effects of these agents. These compelling findings are triggering a fundamental paradigm shift in T2D management whereby the focus is no longer on HbA1c alone, but instead on implementing a comprehensive CV risk reduction strategy prioritizing the use of these evidence-based therapies (along with other evidence-based treatment strategies) with the objective of reducing the risk of morbid complications, and improving the quantity and quality of life of patients with T2D.; Cardiologists are uniquely positioned to become more involved in the management of T2D and established CV disease, which at this time should include initiation (either by prescribing or by making recommendations) of agents proven to reduce CV risk. Specifically, SGLT2-is and/or GLP-1RA have now been shown to have a favorable risk-benefit balance, and are being increasingly emphasized by the practice guidelines as preferable treatment options in vulnerable patients with T2D. The cardiology community should collaborate with other care providers to ensure that when and where appropriate these new T2D therapies are used along with other evidence-based therapies to improve patient outcomes. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc.