Lavie, Carl J.; Laddu, Deepika; Arena, Ross; Ortega, Francisco B.; Alpert, Martin A.; Kushner, Robert F.
Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States and worldwide, and this has contributed to substantial cardiovascular and other health risks. However, controversy exists concerning the causes of obesity and effective modalities for its prevention and treatment. There is also controversy related to the concept of metabolically healthy obesity phenotype, the "obesity paradox," and on the importance of fitness to protect individuals who are overweight or obese from cardiovascular diseases. In this state-of-the-art review, the authors focus on "healthy weight" with the emphasis on the pathophysiologic effects of weight gain on the cardiovascular system; mechanistic/triggering factors; and the rote of preventive actions through personal, education/environment, and societal/authoritative factors, as well as factors to provide guidance for caregivers of health promotion. Additionally, the authors briefly review metabolically healthy obesity, the obesity paradox, and issues beyond Lifestyle consideration for weight loss with medications and bariatric surgery. (C) 2018 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.