Oktay, Ahmet Afsin; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; Ventura, Hector O.; Gilliland, Yvonne E.; Shah, Sangeeta; Cash, Michael E.
Hypertension (HTN) is a global health problem and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. The hemodynamic overload from HTN causes left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which usually manifests as distinct alterations in LV geometry, such as concentric remodeling or concentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH). In addition to being a common target organ response to HTN, LV geometric abnormalities are well-known independent risk factors for CVD. Because of their prognostic implications and quantifiable nature, changes in LV geometric parameters have commonly been included as an outcome in anti-HTN drug trials. The purpose of this paper is to review the relationship between HTN and LV geometric changes with a focus on (1) diagnostic approach, (2) epidemiology, (3) pathophysiology, (4) prognostic effect and (5) LV response to anti-HTN therapy and its impact on CVD risk reduction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.