Margolis, Jay M.; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M.; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff
Background-Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, results in a substantial healthcare system burden. This retrospective observational study compared hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs for patients with venous thromboembolism treated with rivaroxaban versus those treated with warfarin.; Methods and Results-Hospitalizations for adult patients with a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who were initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin were selected from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients treated with warfarin were matched 1: 1 to patients treated with rivaroxaban using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, time from first dose to discharge, and hospitalization costs were reported descriptively and with generalized linear models (GLMs). The final study cohorts each included 1223 patients (751 with pulmonary embolism and 472 with deep vein thrombosis). Cohorts were well matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean (+/- SD) LOS was 3.7 +/- 3.1 days for patients taking rivaroxaban and 5.2 +/- 3.7 days for patients taking warfarin, confirmed by GLM-adjusted results (rivaroxaban 3.7 days, warfarin 5.3 days, P< 0.001). Patients with provoked venous thromboembolism admissions showed longer LOSs (rivaroxaban 5.1 +/- 4.5 days, warfarin 6.5 +/- 5.6 days, P< 0.001) than those with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (rivaroxaban 3.3 +/- 2.4 days, warfarin 4.8 +/- 2.8 days, P< 0.001). Days from first dose to discharge were 2.4 +/- 1.7 for patients treated with rivaroxaban and 3.9 +/- 3.7 for patients treated with warfarin when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P< 0.001), and 2.7 +/- 1.7 and 3.7 +/- 2.1, respectively, when initiated without parenteral anticoagulants (P< 0.001). Patients initiated on rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower mean total hospitalization costs ($ 8688 +/- $ 9927 versus $ 9823 +/- $ 9319, P=0.004), confirmed by modeling (rivaroxaban $ 8387 [95% confidence interval, $ 8035-$ 8739]; warfarin $ 10 275 [ 95% confidence interval, $9842-$10 708]).; Conclusions-Rivaroxaban was associated with significantly shorter hospital LOS and lower hospitalization costs compared with warfarin.