Waddell, Bradford S.; Waddell, W. Hunter; Godoy, Gustavo; Zavatsky, Joseph M.
Study Design.Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to measure radiation exposure to the surgeon phantom's eye. Groups analyzed were: Group 1no glasses (None); Group 2leaded lenses without lead sides (WOLS); Group 3leaded lenses with lead sides (WLS); and Group 4sport wraparound leaded glasses (Sport). Glasses were 0.75mm lead equivalent.Objective.To evaluate the efficacy of three types of leaded eyeglasses at reducing radiation exposure to the lens during typical views of minimally invasive spine surgery.Summary of Background Data.Minimally invasive spine surgery relies upon fluoroscopic x-ray. Ocular radiation exposure is associated with cataract formation. Leaded glasses can reduce ocular radiation exposure.Methods.Fifteen individual 20-second exposures with the fluoroscopic C-arm in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral positions, with phantom head positioned at 0, 45, and 90 degrees to the fluoroscope were performed. Radiation was measured using a solid-state dosimeter. Student t test was used to calculate significance.Results.All glasses (WOLS, WLS, and Sport) had significant reductions in ocular radiation versus no glasses, at all individual head positions (P1.31x10(-34)). Sport had significantly lower ocular radiation dose than WLS at all head positions except at 90 degrees AP (P=0.001). WOLS had significantly lower ocular radiation dose than Sport in three out of six cases including phantom head at 0 degrees AP (P=0.0003), 90 degrees AP (P=4.46x10(-10)), and 90 degrees lateral (P=7.38x10(-28)). WOLS had significantly lower radiation dosage at all head positions than WLS except at 45 degrees AP (P=0.303). All glasses resulted in a significant reduction in total radiation dose from all head positions over no glasses (P8.37x10(-32)).Conclusion.We demonstrate a significant reduction in ocular radiation exposure with all three types of leaded glasses. Lead glasses, WOLS and Sport, were the most effective at reducing ocular radiation.Level of Evidence: 3