Parikh, Sahil A.; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Gray, Bruce H.; White, Christopher J.; Jaff, Michael R.
The pathophysiology of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) includes activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis with resultant renovascular hypertension. Renal artery stenting has emerged as the primary revascularization strategy in most patients with hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic RAS. Despite the frequency with which hemodynamically significant RAS is observed and high rates of technical success of renal artery stenting, there remains considerable debate among experts regarding the role of medical therapy versus revascularization for renovascular hypertension. Modern, prospective, multicenter registries continue to demonstrate improvement in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with excellent safety profiles in patients with RAS. Modern randomized, controlled clinical trials of optimal medical therapy versus renal stenting particularly designed to demonstrate preservation in renal function after renal artery stenting have demonstrated limited benefit. However, these trials frequently excluded patients that may benefit from renal artery stenting. This document was developed to guide physicians in the modern practical application of renal stenting, to highlight the current limitations in the peer-reviewed literature, to suggest best-practices in the performance of renal stenting and to identify opportunities to advance the field. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.