Prabhakar, Amit; Mancuso, Kenneth F.; Owen, Christopher Paul; Lissauer, Jonathan; Merritt, Christopher K.; Urman, Richard D.; Kaye, Alan David
Despite an appreciation for many unwanted physiological effects from inadequate pain postoperative relief, moderate to severe postoperative pain remains commonplace. Though treatment options have evolved in recent years, including improvement in medications, multimodal regimens, and regional anesthetic techniques, including ultrasound and continuous catheters, outcomes data indicate that many of these strategies are associated with varying degrees of morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on the importance of effective postoperative analgesia and both short- and long-term effects associated with inadequate management. A careful literature review of emphasizing treatment options and potential pathogenesis associated with these strategies is emphasized in this review. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.