Shen Y, Zhou J, Shi LZ, Nauman E, Katzmarzyk PT, Price-Haywood EG, Horswell R, Chu S, Yang SP, Bazzano AN, Nigam S, Hu G
Aim To compare the cardiovascular risks between users and non-users of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors based on electronic medical record data from a large integrated healthcare system in South Louisiana.Materials and methods Demographic, anthropometric, laboratory and medication prescription information for patients with type 2 diabetes who were new users of SGLT2 inhibitors, either as initial treatments or as add-on treatments, were obtained from electronic health records. Mediation analysis was performed to evaluate the association of use of SGLT2 inhibitors and changes of metabolic risk factors with the risk of incident ischaemic heart disease.Results A total of 5338 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors were matched with 13 821 non-users. During a mean follow-up of 3.26 years, 2302 incident cases of ischaemic heart disease were defined. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, patients using SGLT2 inhibitors had a lower risk of incident ischaemic heart disease compared to patients not using SGLT2 inhibitors (hazard ratio [HR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.73). Patients using SGLT2 inhibitors also had a lower risk of incident ischaemic heart disease within 6 months (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.25-0.44), 12 months (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.32-0.49), 24 months (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.43-0.60) and 36 months (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54-0.73), respectively. Reductions in systolic blood pressure partly mediated lowering risk of ischaemic heart disease among patients using SGLT2 inhibitors.Conclusions The real-world data in the present study show the contribution of SGLT2 inhibitors to reducing risk of ischaemic heart disease, and their benefits beyond glucose-lowering.