Bareiss AK, Kattar N, Tivis R, Unis G, Do T, Montelibano L, Price-Haywood EG, McCoul E
Background Pneumococcal antibody deficiency has been the subject of limited study in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and has not been studied in recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS). The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is considered for patients with nonprotective Streptococcus pneumoniae titers. We hypothesized that both RARS and CRS patients with deficient S pneumoniae titers and subsequent PPSV23 vaccination would have reduced health-care encounters for sinusitis and fewer prescriptions for antibiotics or steroids. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed of patient encounters between January 2011 and December 2019. All patients included were >= 18 and <= 65 years old with a diagnosis of CRS or RARS and pneumococcal titer data. Patients with immunodeficiency and comorbid conditions requiring PPSV23 vaccination before 65 years of age were excluded. Results A total of 938 patients were included in the study. Nonprotective antibody titers were present in 75.8% of CRS and 74.8% of RARS patients. A total of 306 patients with deficient antibody titers received the PPSV23 vaccine. Eighty-nine percent of CRS and 90.1% of RARS patients had protective responses. Among the 217 patients with continuous data from 2 years before through 2 years after PPSV23 vaccination, a decrease in the number of encounter diagnoses of CRS (p < 0.0001) and RARS (p = 0.0006) was observed. Decreases in the frequency of antibiotic (p = 0.002) and corticosteroid (p = 0.04) prescriptions were also appreciated. Conclusion Most patients with CRS and RARS have nonprotective antibody titers. PPSV23 administration significantly decreases health-care utilization.