Objective Determine whether an individual is at greater risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection because of their community or their individual risk factors.Study design and setting 4,752 records from two large prevalence studies in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana were used to assess whether zip code tabulation areas (ZCTA)-level area deprivation index (ADI) or individual factors accounted for risk of infection. Logistic regression models assessed associations of individual-level demographic and socioeconomic factors and the zip code-level ADI with SARS-CoV-2 infection.Results In the unadjusted model, there were increased odds of infection among participants residing in high versus low ADI (both cities) and high versus mid-level ADI (Baton Rouge only) zip codes. When individual-level covariates were included, the odds of infection remained higher only among Baton Rouge participants who resided in high versus mid-level ADI ZCTAs. Several individual factors contributed to infection risk. After adjustment for ADI, race and age (Baton Rouge) and race, marital status, household size, and comorbidities (New Orleans) were significant.Conclusions While higher ADI was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, individual-level participant characteristics accounted for a significant proportion of this association. Additionally, stage of the pandemic may affect individual risk factors for infection.