Hassan, Imran; Wise, Paul E.; Margolin, David A.; Fleshman, James W.
The management of T1 rectal cancers is based on finding the balance between optimal oncologic outcomes and acceptable functional results for the patient. While radical resection involving a proctectomy is considered the most oncologically adequate option, its adverse effects on patient reported outcomes makes this a less than ideal choice in certain circumstances. While local excision can circumvent some of the adverse functional outcomes, its inadequacy in assessing metastatic lymph node disease and the subsequent negative impact of untreated positive lymph nodes on patient prognosis is a cause for concern. As a result, the therapeutic strategy has to be based on patient and disease-related factors in order to identify the best treatment choice that maximizes survival benefit and preserves health-related quality of life. After adequate preoperative staging work up, in selected patients with favorable pathological features, local excision can be considered. These cancers can be removed by transanal local excision or transanal endoscopic microsurgery, depending on the location of the cancer and expertise available. While perioperative morbidity is minimal, close postoperative follow-up is essential.