N'Dandu, Zola M.; Badawi, Rarny A.; White, Christopher J.; Grise, Mark A.; Reilly, John P.; Jenkins, J. Stephen; Collins, Tyrone J.; Ramee, Stephen R.
Objective: We investigated whether repeat renal artery stent placement compared with treatment with balloon angioplasty alone results in better patency in patients presenting with renal artery in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background: Although stent placement for renal artery stenosis has been demonstrated to be superior to balloon angioplasty for 'de novo' renal artery lesions, the optimal therapy for ISR remains unclear. Methods: Between January 1997 and August 2006, 34 consecutive patients (41 renal arteries) with ISR were treated at the discretion of the operator with balloon angioplasty or repeat stent placement. Quantitative angiography was performed before and immediately after intervention and at follow-up. Angiographic follow-up was obtained for clinical indications in 75% of lesions and routine noninvasive follow-up imaging was obtained in 95% of lesions. Results: Repeat renal artery stent placement demonstrated improved patency compared with balloon angioplasty alone with a 58% reduction in recurrent ISR (29.4% vs. 71.4%, P = 0.02) and a 30% reduction in follow-up diameter stenosis (41 % vs. 58.2%, P = 0.03). The repeat stent group also had better secondary patency (P = 0.05) and a greater freedom from repeat ISR (P = 0.01) when compared with balloon angioplasty alone. There was a trend favoring repeat stent placement for cumulative freedom from target vessel revascularization (TVR) (P = 0.08). Conclusions: Repeat stent placement appears to result in superior patency compared with balloon angioplasty alone for the treatment of renal ISR. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.